Questions from Growth Pole Theory
1. What are three common regional growth theories that share concepts with growth pole theory?
2. What does the neoclassical theory have in common with the “spread” effect of cumulative causation theory?
3. How does specialization in growth industries essential to export base theory relate to the “motor” industry of growth pole theory?
4. How do economies of scale and agglomeration economies explain the “backwash” effect of cumulative causation theory? How do they help explain the multiplier effect in export base theory?
5. How does the outcome of factor mobility on convergence of income differ according to the spread effect versus the backwash effect?
6. How does the role of innovation differ according to neoclassical growth theory versus growth pole theory?
7. How do economies of scale in production interact with economies of scale in transportation to enhance regional growth?
8. What is the difference between economic distance and geographic distance?
9. What is the difference between a growth pole and a growth center?
10. How does the existence of multiple growth centers help explain urban hierarchy, or a system of cities?
11. Summarize the three stages of growth pole theory: 1) concentration at a single center; 2) diffused concentration at multiple centers; and 3) diffusion to the periphery.
12. How does the diffusion of innovations relate to the three stages of growth pole theory?
13. How do the three stages relate to the “backwash” versus “spread” effects?
14. How are growth pole theory and long wave theories of economic growth related to the life cycle of innovations?